Vault Secrets for GCP Credential Access Boundary and Impersonation

2020-07-20

Vault plugin that exchanges a VAULT_TOKEN for a GCP access_token that as attenuated permissions.

The existing GCP access_token secrets plugin plugin Vault provides uses the credentials Vault is seeded with to create additional serviceAccounts “per roleset” and then assign them IAM permissions on GCP resources. Essentially, its creating N service account and then applying permissions. This technique has several limitations which is described in the docs.

In contrast, this plugin uses Vaults Service Account to perform IAM Impersonation on another Service Account and get its access_token. From there, the access_token that represents the target service account can be restricted further by applying Credential Access Boundary rules.

In other words, this plugin does not create new service accounts but rather assumes the identity of another service account and then attenuates the scope of GCP resources that new token can access.

NOTE: since this plugin uses service account impersonation, the target account(s) to impersonate must already exist.


You can find the source here


There are two modes of operation:

  1. Restricted Token In this mode, the VAULT admin defines a policy that stipulates the specific service account a client can assume and the CAB resources it apply to.
    A VAULT_TOKEN bearer cannot request extensions to include resources beyond what the admin defined for the CAB

    • vault admin defines restricted policy on resourceA
    • client -> vault_server
    • vault_server return CAB token
    • client uses CAB token to access resourceA
  2. Unrestricted Token In this mode, the VAULT admin defines a policy that allows the VAULT_TOKEN bearer to get an access_token that represents the impersonated account but the token is not attenuated. This mode is essentially impersonation except that the vault admin can define basic settings like lifetime, delegation and scopes for the impersonated token.

    • vault admin defines unrestricted policy to impersonate serviceAccountA
    • client requests an access_token from vault_server but stipulates a policy to resourceA
    • vault_server return downscoped token
    • client uses token to access resourceA

    the difference between 1 and 2 is that the admin defines the CAB restricts but in 2, the client requests the CAB restrict for a predefined service account that the admin assigned by policy.

  3. Impersonation In this mode, the VAULT admin defines a policy that allows the VAULT_TOKEN bearer to get an access_token that represents the impersonated account but the token is not attenuated. This mode is service account impersonation without scope or lifetime overrides an admin may have set as would be the case with an unrestricted token

Downscoped tokens only work with certain services like GCS

NOTE: this repository and plugin is NOT supported by Google

How it works..

Basically, the code uses Vaults Credentials to impersonate a service account and then downscope

import (
	"golang.org/x/oauth2/google/downscope"
	"google.golang.org/api/impersonate"
	"google.golang.org/api/option"
)

    targetPrincipal := "impersonated-account@project.iam.gserviceaccount.com"
    lifetime := 30 * time.Second
    delegates := []string{}
    targetScopes := []string{"https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform"}

    creds, _ := google.FindDefaultCredentials(ctx, cloudPlatformScope)

    // first impersonate the target service account
    impersonatedTokenSource, _err_ := impersonate.CredentialsTokenSource(ctx, impersonate.CredentialsConfig{
      TargetPrincipal: targetPrincipal,
      Scopes:          targetScopes,
      Lifetime:        lifetime,
      Delegates:       delegates,
    }, option.WithCredentials(creds))

    // then downscope that impersonated account
    accessBoundary := []downscope.AccessBoundaryRule{
      {
        AvailableResource:    "//storage.googleapis.com/projects/_/buckets/" + bucketName,
        AvailablePermissions: []string{"inRole:roles/storage.objectViewer"},
        Condition: &downscope.AvailabilityCondition{
          Expression: expression,
        },
      },
    }

    downScopedTokenSource, _ := downscope.NewTokenSource(ctx, downscope.DownscopingConfig{RootSource: impersonatedTokenSource, Rules: accessBoundary})

    // return token from the downScopedTokenSource()

QuickStart

Setup

The following quick start uses Vault in dev mode. You’ll need

  • golang1.16+
  • make
  • Vault v1.8.1

First configure the two service accounts.

  • vault-server: This is the service account vault runs as
  • impersonated-account: This is the service account vault can impersonate

Allow vault-server permission to impersonate impersonated-account

Create two GCS Buckets and allow generic-server permissions on both.

Allow vault’s service account to impersonate IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT

export PROJECT_ID=`gcloud config get-value core/project`
export PROJECT_NUMBER=`gcloud projects describe $PROJECT_ID --format="value(projectNumber)"`
export BUCKET_1=$PROJECT_ID-cab1
export BUCKET_2=$PROJECT_ID-cab2

gcloud iam service-accounts create vault-server --display-name "Vault Root Service Account"
gcloud iam service-accounts keys  create svc_account.json --iam-account=vault-server@$PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com
export VAULT_SERVICE_ACCOUNT=vault-server@$PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com

gcloud iam service-accounts create impersonated-account --display-name "Impersonated Service Account"
export IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT=impersonated-account@$PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com

echo $VAULT_SERVICE_ACCOUNT
echo $IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT
echo $BUCKET_1
echo $BUCKET_2

gsutil mb gs://$BUCKET_1
gsutil mb gs://$BUCKET_2

echo foo1 > file1.txt
echo foo2 > file2.txt
gsutil cp file1.txt gs://$BUCKET_1/
gsutil cp file2.txt gs://$BUCKET_2/

gsutil uniformbucketlevelaccess set on gs://$BUCKET_1
gsutil uniformbucketlevelaccess set on gs://$BUCKET_2

gsutil iam ch serviceAccount:$IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT:objectCreator,objectViewer gs://$BUCKET_1
gsutil iam ch serviceAccount:$IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT:objectViewer gs://$BUCKET_2

# allow Vault service account to impersonate 
gcloud iam service-accounts add-iam-policy-binding  $IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT \
 --member=serviceAccount:$VAULT_SERVICE_ACCOUNT --role=roles/iam.serviceAccountTokenCreator

The iam.serviceAccountTokenCreator role includes concentric set of permission (see Concentric IAMCredentials Permissions: The secret life of signBlob. If you just need to generate an access_token or an id_token, consider generating a custom role with that specific capability.

Configure Vault Policies

Configure the .hcl and CAB configuration files to use

cab.json.tmpl defines a rule that allows only access to one of the two buckets cab_override.json.tmpl defines a rule that allows access to both buckets

envsubst < "cab.json.tmpl" > "cab.json"
envsubst < "cab_override.json.tmpl" > "cab_override.json"
envsubst < "tokenpolicy.hcl.tmpl" > "tokenpolicy.hcl"

Build

export VAULT_ADDR='http://localhost:8200'
export GOBIN=`pwd`/bin

rm bin/vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab
make fmt
make dev

RUN

export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS=`pwd`/svc_account.json

vault server -dev -dev-plugin-dir=./bin --log-level=debug

At this point, Vault is using the service account defined in GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS

Install

In a new window, enable the plugin

For vault in -dev mode:

export VAULT_ADDR='http://localhost:8200'
# set the VAULT_TOKEN if -dev  switch is not used for vault server
# export VAULT_TOKEN=

export SHASUM=$(shasum -a 256 "bin/vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab" | cut -d " " -f1)

vault plugin register \
    -sha256="${SHASUM}" \
    -command="vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab" \
    secret gcpcab  

vault secrets enable -path="gcpcab" --plugin-name='vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab' plugin

Configure Policy

Then configure the policy you are interested in. Make sure the the environment variables are set.

The following will configure both a restricted and unrestricted policy:

# create restricted token

vault write gcpcab/cab/config/myconfig  \
 project="$PROJECT_ID"  \
 target_service_account="$IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT"  \
 scopes="https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform"  \
 restricted=true \
 duration="3000" \
 bindings=@cab.json

vault policy write restricted-policy -<<EOF
path "gcpcab/cab/certname12020" {
    capabilities = ["update", "delete"]
    allowed_parameters = {    
      "config" = ["myconfig"]
  }
}
EOF

vault token create -policy=restricted-policy


## now create an unrestricted token

vault write gcpcab/cab/config/myunrestrictedconfig \
  project="$PROJECT_ID" \
  target_service_account="$IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT"  \
  scopes="https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform" \
  duration="3000" \
  restricted=false 

vault policy write unrestricted-policy -<<EOF
path "gcpcab/cab/certname22020" {
    capabilities = ["update", "delete"]
    allowed_parameters = {    
      "config" = ["myunrestrictedconfig"]
      "duration" = ["3000"]
      "bindings" = []
  }
}
EOF

vault token create -policy=unrestricted-policy

Restricted TOKEN

In a new window, export the VAULT_ADDR and VAULT_TOKEN that was associated with the restricted policy:

export VAULT_ADDR='http://localhost:8200'
export VAULT_TOKEN=<yourtoken>

export PROJECT_ID=`gcloud config get-value core/project`
export PROJECT_NUMBER=`gcloud projects describe $PROJECT_ID --format="value(projectNumber)"`
export IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT=impersonated-account@$PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com
export BUCKET_1=$PROJECT_ID-cab1
export BUCKET_2=$PROJECT_ID-cab2

And attempt to get the new access token:

vault write gcpcab/cab/certname12020 config="myconfig"

Key             Value
---             -----
access_token    ya29.dr....

Now use that token to access GCS buckets:

export TOKEN=ya29.dr....

curl -s -H "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"  -o /dev/null  -w "%{http_code}\n" https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/$BUCKET_1/o/file1.txt
curl -s -H "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"  -o /dev/null  -w "%{http_code}\n" https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/$BUCKET_2/o/file2.txt

200
403

The CAB rule cab.json we defined allowed only access to $BUCKET_1 so that explains the latter 403

Unrestricted TOKEN

The unrestricted policy was originally set with reestricted=false flag which means a VAULT_TOKEN that uses it can define the CAB rule but not the service account being impersonated

Use the corresponding CAB definition to do the override: cab_override.json which allows read access to both buckets

{
"accessBoundaryRules" : [
	  {
      "availableResource" : "//storage.googleapis.com/projects/_/buckets/$BUCKET_1",
      "availablePermissions": ["inRole:roles/storage.objectViewer"],
      "availabilityCondition" : {
          "title" : "obj-exact",
          "expression" : "resource.name == \"projects/_/buckets/$BUCKET_1/objects/file1.txt\""
      }	      
    },
    {
      "availableResource" : "//storage.googleapis.com/projects/_/buckets/$BUCKET_2",
      "availablePermissions": ["inRole:roles/storage.objectViewer"],
      "availabilityCondition" : {
          "title" : "obj-exact",
          "expression" : "resource.name == \"projects/_/buckets/$BUCKET_2/objects/file2.txt\""
       }       
    }   
 ]
}

So lets try to use that

vault write gcpcab/cab/certname22020  config="myunrestrictedconfig" \
  duration="3000"  bindings=@cab_override.json

Key             Value
---             -----
access_token    ya29.dr.ATVe...
curl -s -H "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"  -o /dev/null  -w "%{http_code}\n" https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/$BUCKET_1/o/file1.txt
curl -s -H "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"  -o /dev/null  -w "%{http_code}\n" https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/$BUCKET_2/o/file2.txt

200
200

Since the derived CAB config the user set allows for both bucket read, you’ll see 200 responses

Impersonated Token

You can also optionally request a completely unrestricted token. That is, you can apply a policy to return the non attenuated token for IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT.

To do this, specify restricted=false and raw_token=true in the policy config:

vault write gcpcab/cab/config/mytotallyunrestrictedconfig  \
 project="$PROJECT_ID"  \
 target_service_account="$IMPERSONATED_SERVICE_ACCOUNT"  \
 scopes="https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform"  \
 restricted=false \
 raw_token=true

vault policy write impersonated-policy -<<EOF
path "gcpcab/cab/certname62020" {
    capabilities = ["update", "delete"]
    allowed_parameters = {    
      "config" = ["mytotallyunrestrictedconfig"]
  }
}
EOF

vault token create -policy=impersonated-policy

vault write gcpcab/cab/certname62020 config="mytotallyunrestrictedconfig"

Vault Plugin Registration for non-dev mode

If your Vault is running in non-dev mode and you uses our own Certs for TLS in server.conf on host vault.domain.com:

  • server.conf
backend "file" {
  path = "/path/to/filebackend"
}

ui = true

listener "tcp" {
  address = "vault.domain.com:8200"
  tls_cert_file = "/path/to/crt_vault.pem"
  tls_key_file = "/path/to/key_vault.pem"
}

api_addr = "https://vault.domain.com:8200"

plugin_directory = "/path/to/plugins"

(you can find the sample certs here). If you wan to test this locally, edit /etc/hosts and set 127.0.0.1 vault.domain.com

  • vault started with

    vault server --config server.conf

  • compile and install plugin

cd vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab
mkdir -p bin
export GOBIN=`pwd`/bin

rm bin/vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab
make fmt
make dev

export SHASUM=$(shasum -a 256 "bin/vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab" | cut -d " " -f1)
echo $SHASUM 


cp bin/vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab /apps/vault/plugins
  • now register the plugin
# assume this is the root token
export VAULT_TOKEN=...
export VAULT_SERVER=https://vault.domain.com:8200
export VAULT_CACERT=/apps/vault/CA_crt.pem

vault plugin register \
    -sha256="${SHASUM}" \
    -command="vault-plugin-secrets-gcp-cab" \
    -args="-ca-cert=$VAULT_CACERT" gcpcab

vault secrets enable -path="gcpcab" --plugin-name='gcpcab' plugin

Specify credentials per mount

By default, the plugin will use Application Default Credentials to access GCP CA. If you need different credentials per mount, you can specify that using the config/ path of the mount point. For example, to specify a credential file JSON certificate for the /gcpcab mount:

vault write gcpcab/config \
  credentials=@/path/to/svc_account.json

This site supports webmentions. Send me a mention via this form.



comments powered by Disqus